The final redaction (1249-50) of the commentary on Apocalypse by Franciscan Alexander of Bremen (d. 1271) with additions probably by Albert of Stade (Schiller, I, 220). Alexander composed this commentary in the light of eschatological beliefs associated with Joachim of Fiore, resulting in imagery where Roman emperors ride Apocalyptic horses, heresiarchs blow trumpets, two-headed angels stand for popes or kings, and the Beast personifies various historical figures.
The pictorial cycle depicts historical parallels in chronological order, e.g., restoration of Monte Cassino by Benedictine monks under Abbot Petronax (89r), conversion of the Saxons by Charlemagne (99v), Bishops Sigfrid of Mainz, Bucca of Halberstadt, and Wenzel of Magdeburg, Gregory VII and Henry IV (108r), First Crusade (139r, 141r), Investiture Controversy (144r-144v). For iconography of Mm.5.31 and related manuscripts, see Schiller, I, 219–27. Miniatures are unframed; most contain titles and speech scrolls.