Sanskrit Manuscripts : Bṛhatkharataragaccheśvaragurvāvalī

Sūracandravācaka, Bhuvanasoma

Sanskrit Manuscripts

<p style='text-align: justify;'>This manuscript contains a Sanskrit <i>Bṛhatkharataragaccheśvaragurvāvalī</i> in 67 stanzas. It contains a list of the heads or pontiffs (<i>sūri</i>) one of the most important Śvetāmbara monastic orders, the Kharataragaccha, together with laudatory epithets and references to or narrations of important events in their lives in a rather ornate style. They are: 1. Mahāvīra and 2. Sudharmasvāmī (stanza 12); 3. Jambūsvāmī, 4. Prabhavasvāmī, 5. Śayyaṃbhava, 6. Yaśobhadra and 7. Saṃbhūtivijaya (stanza 13); 8. Bhadrabāhu, 9. Sthūlabhadrasvāmī, (stanza 14); Nos. 10 to 37 are dealt with globally as <i>prāṇālīpīṭhikānyāyāt sthavirāḥ prabhubhūvire</i>, stanzas 14); 38. Uddyotanasūri (stanza 15; ), 39. Varddhamānasūri (stanza 16-18), 40. Jineśvarasūri (stanza 19), 41. Jinacandrasūri (stanza 20, fol. 1v), 42. Abhayadevasūri (stanzas 21-23), 43. Jinavallabhasūri (stanzas 24-25), 44. Jinadattasūri (stanza 26-33), 45. Jinacandrasūri (stanza 34-35), 46. Jinapatisūri (stanza 36-37), 47. Jineśvarasūri (stanza 38); 48. Jinaprabodhasūri and 49. Jinacandrasūri (stanza 39, fol. 2r), 50. Jinakuśalasūri (stanza 40), 51. Jinapadmasūri (stanza 41); 52. Jinalabdhisūri, 53. Jinacandrasūri, 54. Jinodayasūri and 55. Jinarājasūri (stanza 42), 56. Jinabhadrasūri (stanzas 43-45); 57. Jinacandra, 58. Jinasamudrasūri, 59. Jinahaṃsasūri (like in Klatt 1882: 249 or Weber 1892, p. 1050; Jinasiṃhasūri in Cambridge Or. 2028, f. 17v1) and 60. Jinamāṇikyasūri, 61 (stanza 46). Last but not least, 61. Jinacandrasūri and 62. Jinasiṃhasūri (stanzas 47-67) have the lion's share. They are called <i>yugapradhāna</i>s and are the contemporaries of the author of this text who starts by paying homage to them. He introduces himself as their pupil as well as pupil of the monks Cāritrodayavācanācārya and Vīrakalaśa (stanza 5). He then gives his name as Sūracandravācaka , explains that he wrote what the learned Bhuvanasoma spoke (stanzas 7-8), and that it was approved by the teachers. The <i>paṭṭāvalī</i> of the pontiffs is to be followed by an appendix giving names / genealogies of the supportive lay community, as announced in stanza 11 and in the last words on <a href='' onclick='store.loadPage(4);return false;'>fol. 2v</a> (<i>ataḥ param</i>). This is copied by Bhuvanasoma , pupil of Padmasundaragaṇi . All this suggests that the manuscript could be a unique autograph involving the joint work of two persons: Sūracandravācaka and Bhuvanasoma. It is not dated but given its contents, it was probably written between V.S. 1670, when Jinacandrasūri died and Jinasiṃhasūri became pontiff, and V.S. 1674, when Jinasiṃhasūri died (Vinayasagar 2005: 233-235; Weber 1892: p. 1052). Celebrating the actions of Jinacandrasūri and Jinasiṃhasūri, and especially their good relations with Akbar and Jahangir, it thus gives a glimpse into the relations between powerful lay Jains such as Karmacandra or Somajī and the Mughal political power (Desai 1941: 10-12 and 20). For instance, it is told how Jinasiṃhasūri got the title <i>yugapradhāna</i> at the instance of Jahangir. The emperor got the ceremony performed by his agent Makrabkhān (stanza 66: <i>sāhisilemādeśāt | khāna śrīmukaravo nabābavaraḥ</i>). The end of the text reports about the death and funeral of Jinacandrasūri (cf. Vinayasagar 2005: 230). Sūracandravācaka, the author, acted as a copyist of an undated Ahmedabad manuscript (L.D. Institute of Indology Catalogue No. 4438, shelfmark 3205/2) where, like here, he introduces himself as pupil of Vīrakalaśa, pupil of Cāritrodaya.</p>


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