<p style='text-align: justify;'> These two manuscript maps are undated, but can be assigned on the basis of internal evidence to the period between June 1858 and early 1860 when operations against the 捻 Nian rebels in the area covered by the maps were under the command of 袁甲三 Yuan Jiasan (1806-1863). </p> <p style='text-align: justify;'>The Nians, originating in small village-based self-defence bands in northern Anhui province, coalesced into an insurgent movement following the inundations and resultant famines caused when the Yellow River changed course in 1851. For a time they fought alongside the Taiping rebels, but were finally suppressed in 1868. </p> <p style='text-align: justify;'> In June 1858 Yuan Jiasan was sent to 徐州 Xuzhou in northern Jiangsu province to counter an eastward movement by the Nians. Two months later he was appointed commander-in-chief, but was removed from command in early 1859 due to lack of success. In September of the same year he was reappointed to operational command and two months later was made 督办安徽军务钦差大臣 Imperial Commissioner for military affairs in Anhui. Early in 1860 his troops recovered 临淮 Linhuai and 凤阳 Fengyang on the Huai River (both shown here), for which victories he was awarded the Yellow Jacket. </p> <p style='text-align: justify;'> The first map is centered on 徐州 Xuzhou (34°16'N 117°10'E) in the north of Jiangsu province, and includes parts of southern Shandong and northern Anhui provinces. The map is oriented towards the south and is divided into 100 里 <i>li</i> (approx. 50 km.) squares; although no scale is given, the graticule indicates an approximate scale of 1:62,500. At the bottom of the map are the lakes 骆马湖 Luoma and 微山湖 Weishan; across the map lies the old (southern) course of the 黄河 Yellow River, connected to the lake 洪泽湖 Hongze, which in turn flows into the 淮河 Huai River, which stretches along the top of the map. Thirteen Imperial garrisons are shown, indicated by clusters of red flags with red labels describing their composition. Nian strongholds are indicated by black flags above the inscription 贼圩 <i>zei wei</i> ('<i>bandit encampment</i>'). Mountainous regions, walled towns and small settlements are shown symbolically. </p> <p style='text-align: justify;'> The second map is an enlargement of a section of the first map, showing the eastern half of Lake Weishan, part of the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal (which bisects the map), and the city of 峄县 Yixian (now 枣庄 Zaozhuang) (34°52'N 117°33'E). A scale is not given but it is approximately 1:15,000. This map too is oriented to the south. Sixteen red labels contain information about military units and communications (roads and distances). Symbols for mountainous regions, walled towns and small settlements are as in the first map. </p>
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