<p style='text-align: justify;'>Recto: part of a letter, c. 1050 CE, probably from the Jewish community of Damascus, to the Jewish community in Fusṭāṭ, regarding their persecution by the Arabs, including denying Jews access to water, forbidding Jews to practice the ritual slaughter of animals, the collection of taxes from the Jewish community in advance and apparently also the imposition of a double tax burden on the Jewish community. The previous governor, Ibn Uḵt Abū l-Sayyār, had been especially hard on the Jews, much to the delight of the local Arab elders, but the new governor, Ḥaydara, was persuaded by the central government, and some bribes, to treat the local Jews justly. However, it was not long before he again taxed the community in advance, this time five months before the due date, hence this letter appealing for help, probably both political and financial, from the community in Fusṭāṭ. Verso: Unrelated text in Arabic script. </p>
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