<p style='text-align: justify;'>Leaf, presumably from a collection of correspondence, containing a copy of a letter supposedly sent by the Jews of France (‘From us, the communities of France’) to Ḥasday Ibn Šapruṭ, complaining about the treatment of the Jewish community of Toulouse at the hands of the local ruler, the Count of Toulouse, who carried out a ritual punishment of the Jews at Easter each year, which included a physical assault on their representative in the nave of the church, the so-called ‘colaphus Judaeorum’ (‘cuffing of the Jews’). Original c. 10th c.</p>
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