<p style='text-align: justify;'> The <i>Vajrāvalī</i>, also known as <i>Vajrāvalī nāma Maṇḍalopāyikā</i> is "a ritual compendium compiled by the famous abbot of Vikramaśila monastery, Abhayākaragupta (late 11th–early 12th century CE). It is one of the largest works of tantric Buddhism that deals exhaustively with the various rituals and ceremonies to be performed within a monastic compound" (Mori 2009: 1). According to the colophon, this manuscript was written in 1429 CE at Pātan in the famous Golden Monastery (<i>hiraṇyavarṇavihāra</i>) by the Buddhist monk Jivayībhadra, at the beginning of king Jayayakṣamalla's reign (1428-1482 CE). </p>
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